Over a long period of time, this can cause big effects on the taxonomy of organisms, with the growth of whole new clades above the species level. Morphological evolution occurs through small changes in the morphology of an organism. Over a long period of time, this can cause big effects on the morphology of major clades. This can be clearly seen in the Cetacea , where throughout the group's early evolution, hindlimbs were still present. However over millions of years the hindlimbs regressed and became internal.
Abrupt transformations from one biologic system to another, for example the passing of life from water into land or the transition from invertebrates to vertebrates, are rare. Few major biological types have emerged during the evolutionary history of life. When lifeforms take such giant leaps, they meet little to no competition and are able to exploit many available niches , following an adaptive radiation. This can lead to convergent evolution as the empty niches are filled by whichever lifeform encounters them. Subjects studied within macroevolution include: .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Evolution on a scale at or above the level of species. Darwin's finches by John Gould. Key topics. Introduction to evolution Evidence of evolution Common descent Evidence of common descent. Processes and outcomes. Natural history. History of evolutionary theory. Fields and applications. Applications of evolution Biosocial criminology Ecological genetics Evolutionary aesthetics Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary computation Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary economics Evolutionary epistemology Evolutionary ethics Evolutionary game theory Evolutionary linguistics Evolutionary medicine Evolutionary neuroscience Evolutionary physiology Evolutionary psychology Experimental evolution Phylogenetics Paleontology Selective breeding Speciation experiments Sociobiology Systematics Universal Darwinism.
Social implications. Evolution as fact and theory Social effects Creation—evolution controversy Objections to evolution Level of support. The evolutionary reality of species and higher taxa in plants: A survey of post-modern opinion and evidence. New Phytologist. Transference of function, heterotopy and the evolution of plant development.
Developmental genetics and plant evolution pp. Systematics Association Special. Journal of Philosophy. Experimental macroevolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London. Adaptive landscapes, evolution, and the fossil record. The adaptive landscape in evolutionary biology. Origination and migration drive latitudinal gradients in marine functional diversity. Integrative and Comparative Biology. Birds have paedomorphic dinosaur skulls. Chance in evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Genomic analysis of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli.
Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Skeletal plasticity in response to embryonic muscular activity underlies the development and evolution of the perching digit of birds. Scientific Reports. On the complexity of triggering evolutionary radiations. From developmental constraint to evolvability: How concepts figure in explanation and disciplinary identity.
In: Love AC, editor. Conceptual change in biology: Scientific and philosophical perspectives on evolution and development. Dordrecht: Springer; Exploring the relationships between mutation rates, life history, genome size, environment, and species richness in flowering plants. Ammonoid recovery after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction: A re-exploration of morphological and phylogenetic diversity patterns. Journal of the Geological Society of London. Early evolution of the Eukaryota. From DNA to diversity: Molecular genetics and the evolution of animal design. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science; Unifying species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, functional diversity, and related similarity and differentiation measures through Hill numbers.
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. The evolutionary genetics of adaptations. In: Nitecki MH, editor. Evolutionary innovations. Detecting changes in morphospace occupation patterns in the fossil record: Characterization and analysis of measures of disparity. Composition and dynamics of the great Phanerozoic Evolutionary Floras. Imperfect morphological convergence: variable changes in cranial structures underlie transitions to durophagy in moray eels.
Quantitative genetic approaches to evolutionary constraint: How useful?
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; An integrated view of Precambrian eumetazoan evolution. Comparative transcriptomics enlarges the toolkit of known developmental genes in mollusks. BMC Genomics. Contingent evolution: Not by chance alone. The origin of ascophoran bryozoans was historically contingent but likely. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London.
Key innovations, convergence, and success: Macroevolutionary lessons from plant phylogeny. A phylogenetic perspective on the distribution of plant diversity. Confluence, synnovation, and depauperons in plant diversification. Molecular evolution and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient.
On the dual nature of chance in evolutionary biology and paleobiology. Contrasting evolutionary flexibility in sister groups: Disparity and diversity in Mesozoic atelostomate echinoids. Genetic assimilation: A review of its potential proximate causes and evolutionary consequences. Annals of Botany. Unfinished synthesis. New York: Oxford University Press; Hierarchies in macroevolution. Evolutionary Paleobiology. Punctuated equilibria: An alternative to phyletic gradualism. In: Schopf TJM, editor. Models in paleobiology. New York: Freeman.
Disparity: Morphological pattern and developmental context. Was the Ediacaran-Cambrian radiation a unique evolutionary event? Novelty and innovation in the history of life. Current Biology. Wonderful Life revisited: Chance and contingency in the Ediacaran-Cambrian radation.
The Cambrian Conundrum: Early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals.
IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:
The Cambrian explosion. Inclusion of a near-complete fossil record reveals speciation-related molecular evolution. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. The origin and evolution of birds. The genetical theory of natural selection. New York: Dover; Models of morphological diversification. Evolutionary paleobiology. Contingency and convergence [review of S.
Pdf Genetics, Paleontology, And Macroevolution 2004
Conway Morris, , The crucible of creation] Science. The geologic history of biodiversity. Evolution since Darwin: The first years. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates; Evolutionary dynamics of taxonomic structure. Biology Letters. Functional diversity of marine ecosystems after the Late Permian mass extinction event. Nature Geoscience. Shared developmental programme strongly constrains beak shape diversity in songbirds. Nature Communications. On the role of species in anagenesis. Can modern evolutionary theory explain macroevolution?
In: Serrelli E, Gontier N, editors. Cham: Springer; Not all roads can be taken: Development induces anisotropic accessibility in morphospace. Cranial modularity shifts during mammalian evolution. The macroevolutionary consequences of phenotypic integration: From development to deep time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Ontogeny and phylogeny. The structure of evolutionary theory.
Punctuated equilibrium comes of age. Phenotypic covariation and morphological diversification in the ruminant skull. Epigenetics: Linking genotype and phenotype in development and evolution. Deciphering the palimpsest: Studying the relationship between morphological integration and phenotypic covariation. The generation of variation and the developmental basis for evolutionary novelty. Is heterochrony still an effective paradigm for contemporary studies of evo-devo? Stabilizing selection and the comparative analysis of adaptation.
The evolution of genetic architecture. Adaptive landscapes and macroevolutionary dynamics. Replaying evolutionary transitions from the dental fossil record. The Ordovician brachiopod radiation: Roles of alpha, beta, and gamma diversity. Geological Society of America Special Paper.
Spiralian model systems. International Journal of Developmental Biology. Do cladistic and morphometric data capture common patterns of morphological disparity? Adaptive simplification and the evolution of gecko locomotion: morphological and biomechanical consequences of losing adhesion. Evolutionary and psychological effects in pre-evolutionary classifications. Journal of Classification.
Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution (Second Edition) | PALAIOS | GeoScienceWorld
How comparable are categories in different phyla? Magnitude versus direction of change and the contribution of macroevolutionary trends to morphological disparity. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Dynamic evolutionary change in post-Paleozoic echinoids and the importance of scale when interpreting changes in rates of evolution. The morphological state space revisited: What do phylogenetic patterns in homoplasy tell us about the number of possible character states?
Evolution in an extreme environment: Developmental biases and phenotypic integration in the adaptive radiation of Antarctic notothenioids. BMC Evolutionary Biology. Origins, bottlenecks, and present-day diversity: Patterns of morphospace occupation in marine bivalves. Evidence for abrupt speciation in a classic case of gradual evolution. The evolutionary reality of higher taxa in mammals. The relative importance of directional change, random walks, and stasis in the evolution of fossil lineages.
- Genetics, Paleontology, And Macro Evolution | Reductionism | Evolution?
- Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution - AbeBooks - Jeffrey Levinton: .
- Citation metadata!
- Seduction & Betrayal (The Sierra Ryans Series Book 1)!
- Penny and Billy learn... Shapes;
- Childhood Feeding Problems and Adolescent Eating Disorders!
Evolutionary divergence in directions of high phenotypic variance in the ostracode genus Poseidonamicus. Testing the link between phenotypic evolution and speciation: An integrated palaeontological and phylogenetic analysis. Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change. Phenotypic evolution in fossil species: Pattern and process. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Integrating paleontological and phylogenetic approaches to macroevolution. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics.
The topography of historical contingency. Journal of the Philosophy of History. The tropics as a source of evolutionary novelty: The post-Palaeozoic fossil record of marine invertebrates. Micro- and macroevolution: Scale and hierarchy in evolutionary biology and paleobiology.
Mass extinctions and macroevolution. Paleobiology, 31 , Supplement to No. Jablonski D. Evolutionary innovations in the fossil record: The intersection of ecology, development and macroevolution. Scale and hierarchy in macroevolution. Biotic interactions and macroevolution: Extensions and mismatches across scales and levels. Species selection: Theory and data.
Origination patterns and multilevel processes in macroevolution. Evolution: The extended synthesis. Approaches to macroevolution. Sorting of variation and general conclusions. Evolutionary Biology in revision. Out of the tropics, but how? Fossils, bridge species, and thermal ranges in the dynamics of the marine latitudinal diversity gradient.
The origin and diversification of major groups: Environmental patterns and macroevolutionary lags. Major evolutionary radiations. Oxford: Clarendon Press; Congruence of morphologically-defined genera with molecular phylogenies. Shaping the latitudinal diversity gradient: New perspectives from a synthesis of paleobiology and biogeography. Out of the Tropics: Evolutionary dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient. What can multiple phylogenies say about the latitudinal diversity gradient?
A new look at the tropical conservatism, out of the tropics, and diversification rate hypotheses. Salamander paedomorphosis: Linking thyroid hormone to life history and life cycle evolution. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. Old data for old questions: what can the historical collections really tell us about the Neogene origins of reef-coral diversity in the Coral Triangle? Heterochrony and developmental timing mechanisms: Changing ontogenies in evolution.
Reefs as cradles of evolution and sources of biodiversity in the Phanerozoic. Facilitated variation. Evolution—The extended synthesis. Developmental constraints, modules, and evolvability. Amsterdam: Elsevier; Studying morphological integration and modularity at multiple levels: Concepts and analysis. The multiple origins of complex multicellularity. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary.
Repeatability of adaptation in experimental populations of different sizes. The extended evolutionary synthesis: Its structure, assumptions and predictions. Molecular evolutionary rates predict both extinction and speciation in temperate angiosperm lineages.
Natural selection and random genetic drift in phenotypic evolution.
Quantitative genetic analysis of multivariate evolution, applied to brain: Body size allometry. Adaptation to an extraordinary environment by evolution of phenotypic plasticity and genetic assimilation. Mutation rate is linked to diversification in birds. Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
The evolutionary developmental biology of tinkering: An introduction to the challenge. In: Bock G, Goode J, editors. Tinkering: The microevolution of development. Lizards in an evolutionary tree: Ecology and adaptive radiation of anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press; Adaptive radiation, ecological opportunity, and evolutionary determinism. Convergence, adaptation, and constraint. From snout to beak: The loss of teeth in birds. Evolutionary morphology and evo-devo: Hierarchy and novelty.
Theory in Biosciences. Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution. The origins of genome architecture. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer; The frailty of adaptive hypotheses for the origins of organismal complexity. New tools for studying integration and modularity. Model for macroevolutionary dynamics. The evolution of morphogenetic fitness landscapes: Conceptualising the interplay between the developmental and ecological drivers of morphological innovation.
Australian Journal of Zoology, 62 , 3— The importance of preadapted genomes in the origin of the animal bodyplans and the Cambrian explosion. Revisiting Jablonski : Cladogenesis and range expansion explain latitudinal variation in taxonomic richness. A guide for using functional diversity indices to reveal changes in assembly processes along ecological gradients. Journal of Vegetation Science. The evolution of ecological systems.
Scientific American. The major transitions in evolution. Developmental constraints and evolution. Quarterly Review of Biology. Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. Convergent evolution: Limited forms most beautiful. Heterochrony: The evolution of ontogeny. New York: Plenum; The miscellaneous transitions in evolution. In: Calcott B, Sterelny K, editors.
The major transitions in evolution revisited. Modularity: Genes, development, and evolution. Evidence for a single loss of mineralized teeth in the common avian ancestor. Repeatability and contingency in the evolution of a key innovation in phage lambda. The Ordovician radiation: Macroevolutionary crossroads of the Phanerozoic. In: Talent JA, editor. Earth and life. Species diversity vs. On the origin of novelty in development and evolution. The significance and scope of evolutionary developmental biology: A vision for the 21st century. The role of developmental plasticity in evolutionary innovation.
Why are orchid flowers so diverse? Reduction of evolutionary constraints by paralogues of class B floral homeotic genes. Correlates of diversification in the plant clade Dipsacales: Geographic movement and evolutionary innovations. A Bayesian approach for evaluating the impact of historical events on rates of diversification. Patterns of morphological diversification of mainland Anolis lizards from northwestern South America. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Homology: The evolution of morphological organization.
Origination of Organismal Form. Epigenetic innovation. Novelty in evolution: Restructuring the concept. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. A macroevolutionary expansion of the modern synthesis and the importance of extrinsic abiotic factors. Ancient climate change, antifreeze, and the evolutionary diversification of Antarctic fishes.
Morphological evolution through complex domains of fitness. Computer models of early land plant evolution. Deducing plant function from organic form: Challenges and pitfalls. Form and function in developmental evolution. How transcription networks evolve and produce biological novelt. Repeated evolution and the impact of evolutionary history on adaptation. Large punctuational contribution of speciation to evolutionary divergence at the molecular level. A hierarchical branching model of evolutionary radiations.
Genotype-phenotype maps maximizing evolvability: Modularity revisited. A model of developmental evolution: Selection, pleiotropy and compensation. Constraint and contingency in multifunctional gene regulatory circuits. PLoS Computational Biology. Model adequacy and the macroevolution of angiosperm functional traits. Genomic control process: Development and evolution.
Add To List. Also in This Series. Citation formats are based on standards as of July Citations contain only title, author, edition, publisher, and year published. Citations should be used as a guideline and should be double checked for accuracy. More Like This. More Copies In Prospector. Loading Prospector Copies Table of Contents.
Macroevolution: The Problem and the Field Loading Excerpt LC Subjects. Science -- Life Sciences -- Evolution. Electronic book. Electronic books. Genetik Genetik. Makroevolution Makroevolution.
Related Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved