Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution


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Over a long period of time, this can cause big effects on the taxonomy of organisms, with the growth of whole new clades above the species level. Morphological evolution occurs through small changes in the morphology of an organism. Over a long period of time, this can cause big effects on the morphology of major clades. This can be clearly seen in the Cetacea , where throughout the group's early evolution, hindlimbs were still present. However over millions of years the hindlimbs regressed and became internal.

Abrupt transformations from one biologic system to another, for example the passing of life from water into land or the transition from invertebrates to vertebrates, are rare. Few major biological types have emerged during the evolutionary history of life. When lifeforms take such giant leaps, they meet little to no competition and are able to exploit many available niches , following an adaptive radiation. This can lead to convergent evolution as the empty niches are filled by whichever lifeform encounters them. Subjects studied within macroevolution include: [16].

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Evolution on a scale at or above the level of species. Darwin's finches by John Gould. Key topics. Introduction to evolution Evidence of evolution Common descent Evidence of common descent. Processes and outcomes. Natural history. History of evolutionary theory. Fields and applications. Applications of evolution Biosocial criminology Ecological genetics Evolutionary aesthetics Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary computation Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary economics Evolutionary epistemology Evolutionary ethics Evolutionary game theory Evolutionary linguistics Evolutionary medicine Evolutionary neuroscience Evolutionary physiology Evolutionary psychology Experimental evolution Phylogenetics Paleontology Selective breeding Speciation experiments Sociobiology Systematics Universal Darwinism.

Social implications. Evolution as fact and theory Social effects Creation—evolution controversy Objections to evolution Level of support. The evolutionary reality of species and higher taxa in plants: A survey of post-modern opinion and evidence. New Phytologist. Transference of function, heterotopy and the evolution of plant development.

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Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Skeletal plasticity in response to embryonic muscular activity underlies the development and evolution of the perching digit of birds. Scientific Reports. On the complexity of triggering evolutionary radiations. From developmental constraint to evolvability: How concepts figure in explanation and disciplinary identity.

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Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. The evolutionary genetics of adaptations. In: Nitecki MH, editor. Evolutionary innovations. Detecting changes in morphospace occupation patterns in the fossil record: Characterization and analysis of measures of disparity. Composition and dynamics of the great Phanerozoic Evolutionary Floras. Imperfect morphological convergence: variable changes in cranial structures underlie transitions to durophagy in moray eels.

Quantitative genetic approaches to evolutionary constraint: How useful?

Macroevolution

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; An integrated view of Precambrian eumetazoan evolution. Comparative transcriptomics enlarges the toolkit of known developmental genes in mollusks. BMC Genomics. Contingent evolution: Not by chance alone. The origin of ascophoran bryozoans was historically contingent but likely. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London.

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Conway Morris, , The crucible of creation] Science. The geologic history of biodiversity. Evolution since Darwin: The first years. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates; Evolutionary dynamics of taxonomic structure. Biology Letters. Functional diversity of marine ecosystems after the Late Permian mass extinction event. Nature Geoscience. Shared developmental programme strongly constrains beak shape diversity in songbirds. Nature Communications. On the role of species in anagenesis. Can modern evolutionary theory explain macroevolution?

In: Serrelli E, Gontier N, editors. Cham: Springer; Not all roads can be taken: Development induces anisotropic accessibility in morphospace. Cranial modularity shifts during mammalian evolution. The macroevolutionary consequences of phenotypic integration: From development to deep time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Ontogeny and phylogeny. The structure of evolutionary theory.

Punctuated equilibrium comes of age. Phenotypic covariation and morphological diversification in the ruminant skull. Epigenetics: Linking genotype and phenotype in development and evolution. Deciphering the palimpsest: Studying the relationship between morphological integration and phenotypic covariation. The generation of variation and the developmental basis for evolutionary novelty. Is heterochrony still an effective paradigm for contemporary studies of evo-devo? Stabilizing selection and the comparative analysis of adaptation.

The evolution of genetic architecture. Adaptive landscapes and macroevolutionary dynamics. Replaying evolutionary transitions from the dental fossil record. The Ordovician brachiopod radiation: Roles of alpha, beta, and gamma diversity. Geological Society of America Special Paper.

Spiralian model systems. International Journal of Developmental Biology. Do cladistic and morphometric data capture common patterns of morphological disparity? Adaptive simplification and the evolution of gecko locomotion: morphological and biomechanical consequences of losing adhesion. Evolutionary and psychological effects in pre-evolutionary classifications. Journal of Classification.

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How comparable are categories in different phyla? Magnitude versus direction of change and the contribution of macroevolutionary trends to morphological disparity. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Dynamic evolutionary change in post-Paleozoic echinoids and the importance of scale when interpreting changes in rates of evolution. The morphological state space revisited: What do phylogenetic patterns in homoplasy tell us about the number of possible character states?

Evolution in an extreme environment: Developmental biases and phenotypic integration in the adaptive radiation of Antarctic notothenioids. BMC Evolutionary Biology. Origins, bottlenecks, and present-day diversity: Patterns of morphospace occupation in marine bivalves. Evidence for abrupt speciation in a classic case of gradual evolution. The evolutionary reality of higher taxa in mammals. The relative importance of directional change, random walks, and stasis in the evolution of fossil lineages.


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The topography of historical contingency. Journal of the Philosophy of History. The tropics as a source of evolutionary novelty: The post-Palaeozoic fossil record of marine invertebrates. Micro- and macroevolution: Scale and hierarchy in evolutionary biology and paleobiology.

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Reefs as cradles of evolution and sources of biodiversity in the Phanerozoic. Facilitated variation. Evolution—The extended synthesis. Developmental constraints, modules, and evolvability. Amsterdam: Elsevier; Studying morphological integration and modularity at multiple levels: Concepts and analysis. The multiple origins of complex multicellularity. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary.

Repeatability of adaptation in experimental populations of different sizes. The extended evolutionary synthesis: Its structure, assumptions and predictions. Molecular evolutionary rates predict both extinction and speciation in temperate angiosperm lineages.

Natural selection and random genetic drift in phenotypic evolution.

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Quantitative genetic analysis of multivariate evolution, applied to brain: Body size allometry. Adaptation to an extraordinary environment by evolution of phenotypic plasticity and genetic assimilation. Mutation rate is linked to diversification in birds. Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

The evolutionary developmental biology of tinkering: An introduction to the challenge. In: Bock G, Goode J, editors. Tinkering: The microevolution of development. Lizards in an evolutionary tree: Ecology and adaptive radiation of anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press; Adaptive radiation, ecological opportunity, and evolutionary determinism. Convergence, adaptation, and constraint. From snout to beak: The loss of teeth in birds. Evolutionary morphology and evo-devo: Hierarchy and novelty.

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Australian Journal of Zoology, 62 , 3— The importance of preadapted genomes in the origin of the animal bodyplans and the Cambrian explosion. Revisiting Jablonski : Cladogenesis and range expansion explain latitudinal variation in taxonomic richness. A guide for using functional diversity indices to reveal changes in assembly processes along ecological gradients. Journal of Vegetation Science. The evolution of ecological systems.

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Origination of Organismal Form. Epigenetic innovation. Novelty in evolution: Restructuring the concept. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. A macroevolutionary expansion of the modern synthesis and the importance of extrinsic abiotic factors. Ancient climate change, antifreeze, and the evolutionary diversification of Antarctic fishes.

Morphological evolution through complex domains of fitness. Computer models of early land plant evolution. Deducing plant function from organic form: Challenges and pitfalls. Form and function in developmental evolution. How transcription networks evolve and produce biological novelt. Repeated evolution and the impact of evolutionary history on adaptation. Large punctuational contribution of speciation to evolutionary divergence at the molecular level. A hierarchical branching model of evolutionary radiations.

Genotype-phenotype maps maximizing evolvability: Modularity revisited. A model of developmental evolution: Selection, pleiotropy and compensation. Constraint and contingency in multifunctional gene regulatory circuits. PLoS Computational Biology. Model adequacy and the macroevolution of angiosperm functional traits. Genomic control process: Development and evolution.

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Macroevolution: The Problem and the Field Loading Excerpt LC Subjects. Science -- Life Sciences -- Evolution. Electronic book. Electronic books. Genetik Genetik. Makroevolution Makroevolution.

Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution
Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution
Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution
Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution
Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution
Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution
Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution

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