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Apply Filter Remove Filter Categories. All the latest offers delivered right to your inbox! The Final Causes The Qanun distinguishes mediastinitis from pleurisy and recognises the contagious nature of phthisis tuberculosis of the lung and the spread of disease by water and soil. TheQanun considered important factors in health were air including breathing but also "bad" air ; food and drink; movement and rest; sleep; bowel and urinary health; and emotions.
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The earliest known copy of volume 5 of the Canon of Medicine dated is held in the collection of the Aga Khan and is to be housed in the Aga Khan Museum planned forToronto, Ontario, Canada. He describes what he says are the "four causes" of illness, based on Aristotelian philosophy: The material cause, the efficient cause, the formal cause: 1. Material Cause Avicenna says that this cause is the human subject itself, the "members or the breath" or "the humours" indirectly. Efficient Cause The efficient cause is broken up into two categories: The first is "Extrinsic", or the sources external to the human body such as air or the region we live in.
The second efficient cause is the "Intrinsic", or the internal sources such as our sleep and "its opposite-the waking state", the "different periods of life", habits, and race. Formal Cause The formal cause is what Avicenna called "the constitutions ; the compositions". According to Oskar Cameron Gruner, who provides a treatise within Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, this was in agreement with Galen who believed that the formal cause of illness is based upon the individual's temperament.
Final Cause The final cause is given as "the actions or functions". The elements we experience are mixed with small amounts of other elements and are therefore not the pure elemental substances. Ibn Sina Avicenna goes on to describe each of the four elements in detail. The Earth Avicenna upholds Aristotelian philosophy by describing Earth as an element that is geocentric. The Earth is at rest, and other things tend towards it because of its intrinsic weight.
It is cold and dry. The Water Water is described as being exterior to the sphere of the Earth and interior to the sphere of the Air, because of its relative density. It is cold and moist. It is "hot and moist", and its effect is to "rarefy" and make things "softer". The sphere of the Fire Fire is higher than the other elements, "for it reaches to the world of the heavens".
It is hot and dry; it traverses the substance of the air, and subdues the coldness of the two heavy elements; "by this power it brings the elementary properties into harmony. Avicenna suggests that these qualities battle between each other until an equilibrium state is reached and this state is known as the temperaments. In relation to beings other than men i.
The heart, for example, is hot and must be in equilibrium of other cold parts of the body such as the brain. When this equilibrium between these members are achieved, the person is considered to be in "ideal equability. As an example he says, "The Hindus, in health, have a different equability to the Slaves, and so on.
In relation to the individual himself v. Organs are nowhere near ideal in temperament, but skin comes the closest. Avicenna says that the hand, especially the palm and the tip of the index finger, is the most sensitive of all and attuned to tactile contact. Medicine is described as "hot" or "cold", not based upon its actual temperature but with regard to how it relates to the temperament of the human body.
Avicenna separates these into two categories, which are fairly self explainable within the context of what Ibn Sina has already defined as the temperaments. Simple "intemperaments" i. Hot temperament hotter than normal ii. Cold temperament colder than normal iii. Dry temperament drier than usual iv.
Compound "intemperaments" The compound intemperaments are where two things are wrong with the temperament, i. There are only four because something cannot be simultaneously hotter and colder or drier and moister. The four simple temperaments and four compound intemperaments can each be divided into "Those apart from any material substance" and "Those in which some material substance is concerned", for a total of sixteen intemperaments. Examples of the sixteen intemperaments are provided in the "third and fourth volumes.
Avicenna lists members of the body in "order of degree of Heat", from hottest to coldest. Avicenna credits Galen with this particular list. In the fourth period, both vigor and intelligence decline. Avicenna divides the beginning stage of life in the following table, according to Oskar Cameron Gruner's edition of the Canon of Medicine: Sub- Name Distinctive Characters division First Infancy The period before the limbs are fitted for walking The period of formation of the teeth.
Walking has been Second Babyhood learnt, but is not steady. The gums are not full of teeth. The body shows strength of movement. The teeth are fully Third Childhood out. Pollutions have not yet appeared Juvenility. The period up to the development of hair on the face and Fourth "Puberty" pubes. Pollutions begin. The period up to the limit of growth of the body to the Fifth Youth beginning of adult life.
Period of athletic power. Avicenna generalizes youth as having a "hot" temperament, but comments that there is contro- versy over which periods of youth are hotter. The general notion that youth are "hot" in tempera- ment is due to youth's supposed relationship to members of the body that are hot. For example, blood was considered "hot" as was mentioned earlier, therefore youth is assumed to be hot partially due to blood being more "plentiful" and "thicker", according to Avicenna.
Evidence for youth having an excess of blood is suggested by Avicenna's observation that nose bleeds are more frequent within youth. Other contributing factors are the youth's association with sperm and the consistency of their bile. Further description of youth in regards to heat and moisture is given with respect to sex, geographical location, and occupation. The Canon says, for example, that females are colder and more moist.
The generation and nourishment of proper soul takes place in the heart; it resides in the heart and arteries, and is transmitted from the heart to the organs through the arteries. At first, it [proper soul] enters the master organs such as the brain, liver or reproductive organs; from there it goes to other organs while the nature of the soul is being modified in each [of them]. As long as [the soul] is in the heart, it is quite warm, with the nature of fire, and the softness of bile is dominant.
Then, that part which goes to the brain to keep it vital and functioning, becomes colder and wetter, and in its composition the serous softness and phlegm vapor dominate. That part, which enters the liver to keep its vitality and functions, becomes softer, warmer and sensibly wet, and in its composition the softness of air and vapor of blood dominate. In general, there are four types of proper spirit: One is brutal spirit residing in the heart and it is the origin of all spirits. Another — as physicians refer to it — is sensual spirit residing in the brain.
The third — as physicians refer to it — is natural spirit residing in the liver. The fourth is generative — i. These four spirits go-between the soul of absolute purity and the body of absolute impurity. The secondary fluids are separated into "non-excrementitious" and "excrementitious". This section describes blood and compares its healthy states with its unhealthy states.
Avicenna describes healthy blood as "red in colour, has no unpleasant odour, and has a very sweet taste. Serous humour resembles blood and is necessary for body tissues for two reasons: to provide the tissue with nutrients as an auxiliary and to keep the bones and tissues moist. Some are "compound members" such as the heart, the liver, and the brain. He also categorizes these into vital organs and auxiliary organs.
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He contrasts Galen's view that the brain is the "chief seat of sentient life" with Aristotle's view that the heart is the source of all the body's faculties, saying that if physicians considered the matter carefully they would agree with Aristotle that the heart was the ultimate source of all the faculties, even if for example the brain is where the rational faculty manifests itself. The Canon included numerous discussions on anatomy and diagrams on certain body parts, including diagrams of the cranial sutures.
The substances are simple in the sense of not compounded with other substances. Plants, animal substances and minerals are included. Book 5 the Formulary lists compound drugs, attributing them to various Arabic, Indian and Greek sources. Avicenna added his own comments, highlighting differences between recipes from different sources, and sometimes giving his own recipe.
He also gave his opinion of the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of some remedies, and gave details of where particular ingredients came from and how they were prepared. He favoured proven remedies which had been tested through experience, cautioning that compounds could have unexpected or much stronger effects than might be expected from the effects of the individual components. If the drug has an immediate effect, this shows that it has acted against the disease itself. If that is not the case, the effect is then accidental, because things that occur naturally are always or mostly consistent.
Book 5 Formulary  Book 5 covers compound drugs. Notes and references 1. Finger, Stanley ISBN 2. Retrieved 20 December McGinnis, Jon Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9. Fu Wei-kang ed. Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman Retrieved 11 June Ostler, Nicholas Ad Infinitum. Harper Press. Retrieved 19 December Osler, William The Evolution Of Modern Medicine. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1- Howell, Trevor H. Age and Ageing 16 1 : 58— Jacquart, Danielle Retrieved 16 August Avicenna, Ibn Sina; Laleh Bakhtiar Canon of Medicine 2nd ed.
Lutz, Peter L. Humana Press. Mohammadali M. Shojaa, R. International Journal of Cardiology Elsevier 3 : — Aliment Canon of Medicine. Savage-Smith, Emilie Crombie, Alistair Cameron Robert Grosseteste and the origins of experimental science, Clarendon Press. Retrieved 6 September Portrait of Avicenna, Medicin, Chap. Engraving, early 17th cent.
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Many physicians in the Islamic world were outstanding medical teachers and practitioners. Sometimes known in the West by the Latin name, Avicenna, this Persian physician became the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. He earned royal favour for treating the Kings of Bukhara and Hamadan for ailments other physicians could neither diagnose nor cure. Though trained as a physician, Ibn Sina made important contributions to philosophy, mathematics, chemistry, and astronomy.
A healer and a humanist, Avicenna developed an exemplary holistic approach that captures the essence of ethics in science and has thus come to serve as a source of inspiration for the promotion of this concern, which is of central importance to UNESCO. Designed by sculptor-medallist Victor Douek, the obverse depicts a scene showing Avicenna surrounded by his disciples, inspired by a miniature in a 17th-century Turkish manuscript. Ibn Sina was also the first physician to describe meningitis, parts of the eye, and the heart valves, and he found that nerves were responsible for perceived muscle pain.
He also contributed to advancements in anatomy, gynecology, and pediatrics. A lacquered binding board cover of the Canon of Medicine, It has been thought that this is an illustration of a legend about Avicenna died and a certain young prince of Gurgan by the Caspian Sea who became sick of a malady which nobody could treat. Avicenna was invited to give his opinion. At the mention of a certain town, he felt a flutter in the pulse. Again, a certain street was mentioned and the same phenomenon was repeated; and a third time, when the names of the inhabitants of a certain household were enumerated, it came out that the youth was in love with a girl.
The therapy suggested by Avicenna was to allow the couple to get married…. Excerpt from the Wellcome Library.
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One of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalism and an eminent figure in Islamic learning was Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna It contains some of the most illuminating thoughts pertaining to distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy; contagious nature of phthisis; distribution of diseases by water and soil; careful description of skin troubles; of sexual diseases and perversions; of nervous ailments…. George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science. This opening shows the start of the third book depicting diseases of the brain.
Its encyclopaedic content, its systematic arrangement and philosophical plan soon worked its way into a position of pre-eminence in the medical literature of Europe, displacing the works of Galen and becoming the text book for medical education in the schools of Europe. The text was read in the medical schools at Montpellier and Leuven as late as , and Arnold C. When the Arabic original was published in Rome in , it became one of the first Arabic books to be produced on the new invention of the printing press.
A leading reason is that Ibn Sina gives an integrated view of surgery and medicine, whereas Osler largely shuns intervention. Ibn Sina, for example, tells how to judge the margin of healthy tissue to take with an amputation, a basic topic uncovered by Osler. The gap between medicine and surgery is now closing, with the advent of interventional cardiology, gastroenterology, radiology, etc. Ibn Sina correctly saw medicine and surgery as one.
Avicenna and Rhazes are shown on the 4th row, last column. Hervagius Basle , pages It should be noted that many such diagrams have two simultaneous projections: the body is depicted in the frontal view while the head is reversed, as seen from behind. These illustrations became very popular in various Arabic or Persian medical treatises, and were often included in works to which they originally did not belong.
Excerpts from the Wellcome Library. Its origins date to the early 11th century Iran, but it eventually was used all over the Middle East and Europe as the standard medical text for years. The Canon formed the basis of medical teaching at European universities until the beginning of modern times. Credit: Aga Khan Museum Collection. Just as Arabs, Turks and Persians all like to claim Avicenna as their own, the Ismailis like to consider him to be a part of their own tradition. The Ismailis therefore have a good reason for treating Avicenna as one of their own.
Date posted: Sunday, December 16, With the exception of three images from UNESCO, Wikipedia and the Aga Khan Museum Collection, all the remaining images in the above piece on Avicenna are from the website of The Wellcome Trust, a UK based charity funding institution for research to improve human and animal health by supporting the brightest minds in biomedical research and the medical humanities.
In addition to funding biomedical research, it supports the public understanding of science. Not only is this fruit visually appealing and very palatable, it also has a reputation for being very healthy. An apple a day keeps the doctor away, right? There is a wealth of scientific evidence that proves this well-loved fruit deserves much of its good reputation. Here are ten of the ways that apples can keep doctors away: 1. Cancer Prevention — Apples, apple juice, and apple extracts have all been shown to prevent colon, breast, and skin cancer in animal subjects.
Epidemiological observations also support the effectiveness of apples in preventing lung and colon cancer in human populations. Antioxidant Activity — The phytochemical content of apples has demonstrated free radical scavenging activities that reduce DNA damage caused by oxidation.
It may be interesting to note that according to studies, the most antioxidant-rich part of the apple is its peel, not its pulp. Antihyperglycemic — With the wealth of available scientific evidence supporting the antihyperglycemic effect of the apple, the question of researchers is no longer whether this fruit can really control hyperglycemia but more on which particular phenolic of the fruit confers this effect, and which apple variety provides the largest amount of benefits. A study has shown that apple consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
Cholesterol Reduction — One of the reasons why apples are so effective at lowering the risk of heart disease is that they have a reducing effect on bad cholesterol. In a study, researchers observed that when animal subjects were given apples, their levels of bad cholesterol LDL in the blood decreased, their good cholesterol HDL levels increased, and there was more cholesterol in their feces, which suggests that less cholesterol was absorbed by the body.
Anti-asthma — Researchers have found a specific link between apple consumption and a reduced risk for asthma. This same link has not been found in the general consumption of other fruits and vegetables such as grapefruit, onions, and white cabbage. Anti-cholera — Researchers have found that immature apples contain polyphenols that inhibit the adverse effects of cholera on the body, making the fruit a possible therapeutic agent for treating cholera victims.
The main dietary sources of the flavonoids were either tea or apples. The findings showed that while tea drinking did not produce a significant effect on the subjects, apple consumption resulted in less coughing and breathlessness, leading to the conclusion that a high intake of apples is beneficial for relieving the symptoms of COPD. Unfortunately, the skin of the apple can be tainted with pesticides used in commercial fruit production. As a folk remedy, it has been credited with curing everything from the flu to warts or sunburn to dandruff.
However, it also can help reverse many serious diseases that many would immediately turn to medications to solve. Here are 8 more reasons this powerful health tonic makes your kitchen your best pharmacy. Unpasteurized or organic Apple Cider Vinegar ACV contains mother of vinegar, which has a cobweb-like appearance and can make the vinegar look slightly congealed. ACV can kill head lice, reverse aging, ease digestion, prevent flu, prevent acne, reduces inflammation, kill fungus, regulate pH balance, dissolve kidney stones and helps relieve allergies, migraines, asthma, nausea, heart burn and wash toxins from the body.
Science has also verified the the empirical evidence observed through the ages. Several studies have found that vinegar may help lower glucose levels. For instance, a study White, A. In another study from Arizona State University, subjects took a drink of 20 grams of apple cider vinegar and 40 grams of water. Believe it or not, research suggests that apple cider vinegar can help with allergies because of its ability to reduce mucous and sinus congestion. When reducing the effects of allergies, it can also help stave off sinus infections and their related symptoms, such as sore throats and headaches.
In a study published in a foreign medical journal, scientists found an apple cider vinegar-enhanced diet may increase in HDL good cholesterol , reduces levels of triglycerides. Research in rats suggests that apple-cider vinegar can help control triglycerides and cholesterol Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, June 22, The theory behind the alkaline diet is that our blood is slightly alkaline with a normal pH level of between 7. The body constantly strives to achieve this state of equilibrium. Apple cider vinegar helps the body maintain a healthy alkaline pH level.
Research shows that higher acid levels lower pH level leads to a lack of energy and higher incidences of infection. One study found that eating vinegar was associated with a decreased risk of esophageal cancer. Pour through your hair after shampooing several times a week. You can also dilute apple cider vinegar with two parts water, and spread the concoction over your face with a cotton ball as a toner. You can do this at night after washing, and in the morning before you apply your moisturizer.
You can also dab apple cider vinegar directly onto age spots and leave them on overnight to lighten their color. White vinegar perhaps other types might help people feel full. A study Ostman,E. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, of 12 people found that those who ate a piece of bread along with small amounts of vinegar felt fuller and more satisfied than those who just ate the bread. A study on mice showed that consuming acetic acid the active component in ACV , upregulates the expression of genes for fatty acid oxidation enzymes in the liver causing a suppression in body fat accumul-ation.
In a double-blind experiment, obese Japanese were assigned to three different groups based on similar body weights, body mass indexes BMI , and waist circumference. Each group drank a ml drink containing either 30ml, 15ml, or 0ml of vinegar daily for 12weeks. Those in the 30ml and 15ml groups had lower BMI, visceral fat area, waist circumference, serum triglyceride, and body weight to the control group of 0ml.
The week weight losses were modest: 1. It was concluded that consumption of vinegar might reduce obesity. Top 10 Amazing Health Benefits Of Hazelnuts Hazelnuts, also called cobnuts or filberts, have been harvested by humans for many thousands of years, providing a bounty of nutrition that stores well through lean winter months and making a helpful contribution to general health.
Timber from the trees is extremely useful due to its strength and flexibility. It is, perhaps, a tale to encourage children of those days to keep up their intake of this healthy food. Blanching or bleaching these nuts causes a great loss of beneficial phenolic compounds. The skins have a slightly bitter taste but this could also be beneficial, as the bitter taste itself directly stimulates the digestive system.
Cardiovascular Health Testing of patients with high cholesterol levels after a period of daily hazelnut consumption has been shown to reduce the indicators of cardiovascular health risk. Rheumatoid Arthritis The significant levels of plant-based antioxidants and phytochemicals found in hazelnuts are generally accepted as having a positive effect on symptoms of this disease.
Cancer Protective Dietary nutraceuticals are growing in stature as evidence grows for their role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. The healthy fats and strong antioxidants that are often linked by scientists to this protective effect against cancer in humans are found in good amounts in hazelnuts, which have benefits relating particularly to colon cancer.
Female Diabetes Thiamin deficiency is strongly linked with cases of diabetes mellitus. Hazelnuts can help to supply the recommended intake as a natural dietary source of this valuable vitamin. Note: Tests show much greater improvements for women with diabetes than for men. Gallstone Reduction Regular nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in the incidence of gallstone disease in men. Weight Loss Although nuts have a high fat content, it has been shown that eating them does not contribute to weight gain; in fact, the opposite is often true.
Low Sodium Content Hazelnuts contain negligible amounts of sodium, making them perfect for anyone on a low sodium diet. Metabolism Balancing The combination of nutrients and minerals in hazelnuts, as well as the presence of folic acid, help to balance the metabolism, especially by lowering homocysteine levels that can cause degenerative disease. Skin Health High in Vitamin E The high level of vitamin E in hazelnuts makes them excellent for protecting the skin from ultraviolet rays and its effects, which include skin cancer and wrinkling.
Vitamin E collectively refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include eight naturally existing chemical forms, namely, alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta- tocopherol, alpha-tocotrienol, beta-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol, and delta-tocotrienol. Our liver regulates the level of vitamin E present in our body systems and functions in the metabolism and excretion of vitamin E.
It should be noted that although there are eight vitamin E forms, only alphatocopherol is recognized by the alpha tocopherol transfer protein alpha- TTP and is transferred to the plasma. In particular, majority of people often associate vitamin E with its effective and potent antioxidant properties and cell signaling aspects — something that vitamin E is best known for. Vitamin E operates in cell membranes where it puts off the propagation of free radical reactions.
They are of note because they can damage cells and can cause the development of some nasty diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Being an antioxidant, vitamin E aids the body in combating the damage related to oxidative stress. In fact, vitamin E also possesses other non-antioxidant properties that are as vital as its antioxidant activities as well. For example, alpha-tocopherol appears to suppress cell proliferation, platelet aggregation, and monocyte adhesion; to inhibit protein kinase C, 5-lipoxygenase, and phospholipase A2; and to activate protein phosphatase 2A and diacylglycerol kinase.
Gamma-tocopherol has been found to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity and thus to possess anti-inflammatory properties and to reduce cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer risks. There is a long battery of reasons why we need to ensure vitamin E is present in our diet. As mentioned earlier, it is an antioxidant and keeps some diseases at bay. Because of its protective activity in cell components against the deleterious actions of free radicals and oxidative stress, vitamin might contribute to the prevention of cancer, age-related macular degeneration and cataracts, and cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases.
Wheat germ is a very rich source of vitamin E as well, with One piece of g swordfish cooked, dry heat Many clinical trials say that a dose of IU of vitamin E per day proves to be safe and effective in preventing diseases and treating adults. Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols. Life Sciences, 78 18 : Vitamin E regulatory mechanisms.
Annual Review of Nutrition, History of vitamin E in infant nutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46 1 Suppl : Vitamin E: action, metabolism and perspectives. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, 57 2 : The state of antioxidant affairs. Nutrition Today, Non-antioxidant activities of vitamin E. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 11 9 : American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74 6 : Molecular aspects of alpha-tocotrienol antioxidant action and cell signalling. Journal of Nutrition, 2 : SS. Circulation, 13 : Vitamin E. University of Maryland Medical Center.
This quick reference guide will give you some encouragement to choose the best foods for cleansing the liver to support your overall health! If at all possible, choose fresh organic produce as it will benefit both you and the environment! If the liver is overworked, it can lead to the toxification of body tissues that opens the door to disease. There are also herbs that can be used to boost the process, please see our Top 10 Herbs For The Liver article for more information. Carrots — it is the high levels of provitamin A in the form of beta-carotene that make carrots a good choice for a healthy liver if the body is able to convert them into vitamin A see 8.
A word of caution: some sites recommend high doses of carrot juice as a liver cleanse but too much beta-carotene can actually cause liver toxicity! Beets contain a phytonutrient called betanin, which has been shown to have a protective effect on liver health. As with many foods, cooking should be kept to a minimum to maintain their health-giving properties. Reducing high consumption of fat and soft drinks will also help! Lemon juice is well-known as a liver cleansing agent. It is recommended that you also cleanse the colon before the liver to avoid toxins remaining in the body.
Green tea is a source of catechins, another form of antioxidant that helps to maintain a balanced liver function. Turmeric is high in circumin, which is a strong antioxidant and has been shown to reduce the inflammation that is associated with many chronic diseases. Leafy greens such as cabbage and broccoli — the presence of isothiocyanates contributes to their ability to fight chronic illness such as liver cirrhosis.
They also contain a good dose of iodine, helpful for thyroid health. Avocado — scientific testing in Japan has shown potent suppression of toxic liver injury in rats, which may indicate its benefit to humans. A more recent study has shown that avocados, when taken with foods high in beta-carotene, help the liver to absorb provitamin A and convert it to vitamin A. Garlic has been used medicinally for many thousands of years for many kinds of illnesses — it has blood cleansing effects, benefits the respiratory system and is now indicated to have a protective effect on the liver.
Spinach is high in betaine, an important nutrient that benefits liver function and is therefore valuable in preventing chronic disease. It could be that your diet is too high in calcium, meat protein, salt increases urate , purines found in alcoholic beverages or oxalate cranberry, apple, orange juices. Insufficient water consumption is also a factor.
Other causative factors are existing medical problems such as urinary tract infection, gout, inflamatory bowel disorders, sedentary lifestyle and genetics. People with kidney stones experience extreme discomfort, with several episodes of sudden sharp and excruciating pain in the lower abdomen or groin that can sometimes be relieved by movement. The pain may or may not radiate, depending on whether the stones move. Signs and symptoms associated with kidney stones include abdominal pain, fever, chills, nausea and vomiting.
Larger stones are often treated by using ultrasound or X-rays to locate them and then shock waves or laser treatment to break them down. However, medications are not the only tool that can relieve you of your suffering from kidney stones. In fact, there are natural remedies that may be able to provide additional comfort as you and your body duel with kidney stones. Increase Your Hydration — This is by far the best natural remedy for any type of kidney stones you have.
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People diagnosed with kidney stones should be consuming a minimum of 10 glasses of fluids on a daily basis. People who are at risk of developing cystine stones should drink more fluids, at least 14 glasses every day. To determine if you are drinking enough fluids, check if your urine is colourless. If not, then you ought to increase your hydration and must be consistent with it. Water remains the best fluid for everyone and should comprise at least half of their hydration routine.
Although there is calcium concentration in water in general, it plays a diminutive role in stone formation. As citrate levels in the body increase, your protection against kidney stones also increases. The high content of vitamin C will also boost your immune system. Dandelion — A taproot perennial that grows abundantly in North America, Europe and Asia, dandelion Taraxacum Officinale has anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties  that contribute to the prevention of kidney stones. On top of that, dandelion is a natural diuretic which makes it a great tonic and cleanser for our kidneys, often helping to dissolve stones and to prevent further formation of them.
You can make an infusion of dandelion leaves or a decoction of the root, either by harvesting your own plants the roots can be dried slowly in a warm oven for storage or by buying ready-made dandelion tea bags or tincture. It is best taken unsweetened as the bitter taste stimulates the digestive system. Pomegranates — Since pomegranates are low in potassium, they are great for people who are on a renal diet.
A renal diet is generally low in protein, salt, phosphorus and potassium and is recommended for people who are suffering from renal problems like kidney stones and kidney failure. So if you are concerned about the risk of kidney stones, start your day with a glass of fresh pomegranate juice or make a habit of eating pomegranates.
Basil — Basil is commonly found in our kitchen, but did you know that basil is a known natural remedy for kidney stones? Basil can strengthen our kidneys. Drinking this delicious concoction everyday can help to alleviate the discomfort of kidney stones. Grapefruit — Grapefruit ranks as one of the most powerful sources of antioxidants among fruits therefore the regular consumption of grapefruit can help you ward off urinary tract infection.
Grapefruit juice is another powerful tool that reduces calcium oxalate kidney stones. Marshmallow Root — Marshmallow root has strong anti-inflammatory properties. This herb contains mucilages, which form a protective coating to soothe tissues that have become inflamed and irritated. This coating protects the digestive and urinary tract when kidney stones pass. James Balch, author of The Super Antioxidants, recommends a daily intake of two pints of marshmallow root tea to effectively flush out kidney stones from the body. Green Tea — Perhaps everybody agrees that green tea is a wonder drink.
A group of doctors from Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences conducted a study in about the preventative effects of green tea in the formation of renal stones. The study showed that the antioxidant properties of green tea actually lowered the formation of calcium oxalate deposits thus preventing calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Wild Carrot Leaves and Seeds — As an aromatic herb, wild carrot Daucus Carota is not to be confused with the common vegetable carrot.
Wild carrot is a known diuretic, which means it encourages toxins and waste to be flushed out from our kidneys.
Even if stones have begun to form, the same concoction is still reported to be capable of diminishing those harmful stones and reducing their recurrence. Eat for the benefit of your kidneys — Too much salt, alcohol and preservatives top the list of food items to avoid. Go for meals that contain a minimal amount of salt and as much as possible cook your own food from fresh ingredients. Buying canned goods is not only more costly but also potentially dangerous to your kidneys. Invest in fruits and vegetables that have high antioxidant properties such as tomatoes, blueberries, squashes and carrots.
Beware of red meats such as pork and beef , oxalate rich foods nuts, spinach and beans , cold water fish, refined foods like white bread and commercial fast foods like French fries and burgers. A healthy lifestyle means healthy kidneys — Before taking any prescription drugs, always consult your doctor first. There are medications that can do more harm to your kidneys than good. UW Health. UW Hospital and Clinics, n. Livestrong Foundation, 7 Oct.
Off The Grid News. George Mateljan Foundation, n. The Jerusalem Post. Preparing To Survive. The pain arises from the stomach or lower chest and then spreads towards the neck, throat,and jaw as a result of stomach acid backing up to the esophagus the swallowing pipe where the food passes from the mouth to the stomach. Heartburn is medically labeled as pyrosis.
It commonly appears after a meal or during sleep. The pain associated with heartburn worsens when one lies down or bends over and can last for several minutes and even hours. However, when heartburn occurs too often, gastro- esophageal reflux disease GERD should be suspected. The discomfort of heartburn particularly can hinder a person from accomplishing certain tasks. Here is a list of home remedies that may assist and prevent heartburn. Note — as always for this site, this is not medical advice nor substitute for consultation with a qualified medical practitioner. Diet modification — Add more fiber into your diet.
Fiber helps keep the digestive tract healthy. Also, avoidacid-forming foods: Certain foods and drinks can trigger an increased stomach acid secretion and hence may worsen heartburn. These food items include coffee, alcohol, carbonated drinks, fatty or spicy foods, chocolates, tomatoes and tomato sauces, peppermint and spearmint, and acidic fruits and juices such as those from oranges, pineapples, and grapefruit.
Avoid foods and drinks that can trigger heartburn. Eating properly — Aside from a diet devoid of heartburn triggers, eating smaller meals rather than three large ones is advised. Moreover, only lie down to rest or sleep about three hours after your meal. Quitting smoking — Cigarette smoke may contain chemicals that can weaken your lower esophageal sphincter. Chewing sugar-free gum — There is more to chewing gum than just eliminating certain odors in your mouth from some meals.
The results of a study from London Hospital Medical College, UK, indicated that chewing gum is an effective non-pharmacological treatment option for some patients with gastroesophageal reflux. Saliva is alkaline in pH and acts as an acid buffer. Moreover, chewing gum stimulates one to swallow more often. Swallowing helps to clear the acid within the esophagus by pushing the acid back into the stomach and out of the esophagus.
In a UK study published in the Journal of Dental Research, chewing sugar-free gum for half an hour after a meal was evidenced to reduce the acidic reflux after eating a meal. Fat-free Skimmed Milk — Drinking half a cup of skimmed milk can help ease the heartburn. It can temporarily buffer stomach acids and can provide the necessary nutrients that would help irritated esophageal tissues to recover. Note that whole milk contains fats that may induce acid production in the stomach, so drink only fat-free milk.
Baking Soda — Baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, is a well-known home antacid probably just sitting at the comfort of your kitchen cabinet. Acting as a base, it remedies heartburn by neutralizing the excess acid in the stomach. For adults, mix For children, reduce the amount to a quarter or half a teaspoon. When using baking soda powder, add one-half teaspoonful in a glass of water, and take this every two hours. Apple Cider Vinegar — There is not much actual scientific research regarding the effectiveness of apple cider vinegar against acid reflux — but it has been reported beneficial by some sources.
Apple cider vinegar, although acidic itself, supposedly helps to balance the acid production in the stomach, buffering the acidity level. Mix one teaspoon to two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar with eight ounces of water, and drink this to relieve the heartburn. Apples and Bananas — Snack on apples or bananas, whether fresh or dried. Both fruits are reported to work charms in reducing the burning sensation: Apples and bananas are reported alkalinizing and may help neutralize the excess acid.
The sweet-flavored root of Glycyrrhiza glabra possesses a broad range of health-promoting and therapeutic properties, such as anti-inflammatory effects. Licorice root contains glycyrrhizin, which is also used as peptic ulcer treatment and expectorant. However, glycyrrhizin can also produce negative side effects such as hypertension and edema. Eliminating glycyrrhizin from licorice i. Deglycyrrhizinated licorice works against heartburn by helping in minimizing the inflammation caused by the acid reflux on the esophagus tissues and in initiating the healing of irritated mucous membranes.
Ginger — Around 2 to 4 grams of fresh ginger can help ease the irritation and inflammation on the esophagus that typically comes with heartburn. Ginger works in an almost similar fashion with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but with lesser side effects.
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It suppresses the synthesis of prostaglandin and leukotriene, which act as mediators of inflammation. Oatmeal — Oatmeal can constitute a low-fat, high-fiber meal. Such meals limit the acidity in the stomach to a manageable level and soothe the stomach itself. As mentioned earlier, bananas can help neutralize the excess acid, so top your oatmeal with sliced bananas for breakfast.
Aloe vera — The juice that can be extracted from Aloe vera can reduce the inflammation caused by the excess acids on the irritated esophagus. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have already demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of Aloe vera, which inhibits substances involved in the inflammation process such as thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin F2. What Causes Heartburn?. Oesophageal acid and salivary secretion: is chewing gum a treatment option for gastro-oesophageal reflux? Digestion, 58 2 : The effect of chewing sugar-free gum on gastroesophageal reflux.
Journal of Dental Research, 84 11 : Ginger—an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. Journal of Medicinal Food, 8 2 Aloe vera: A short review. Indian Journal of Dermatology, 53 4 : Pain may be an indicator of more serious issues and so if you have symptoms, medical consultation is advised. Also, be sure to ask your physician if there are any known interactions between herbs and medications you are taking.
Just discovered a fantastic, fascinating list of natural painkillers that are common kitchen ingredients! This list is absolutely incredible — and the uses are based on reports from scientific research this info is included at the source article — link at the foot of my commentary. Thankfully there are still many good scientists doing groundbreaking work in this field and I take my hat off to you. But many people are concerned rightly so about potentially nasty side effects or long term effects of taking pain meds.
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This is also useful knowledge for those occasions when something strikes at 3am and you have to deal with it however you can. For example, if you had a sudden toothache in the middle of the night and had nothing in the medicine cabinet, what would you do? Knowledge is king and if you knew that cloves were a standard toothache remedy in old times, you might be able to take the edge off it until you can get treatment. Please note — this book is not medical advice nor substitute for a professional medical evaluation.
The link follows after our introduction to the topic. Arthritis is a common condition that affects many people, typically as they get older. Causing pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of mobility, it can be debilitating, not to mention very painful. Arthritis can also be aggravated or triggered by obesity, injury or overuse. However it is widely regarded that exercise, done properly, is vital for joint health. Some of the remedies listed in the tutorial are pretty interesting and unexpected — for example Tart Cherries. However not all studies are in agreement are they ever? The nightshade family of plants is an interesting one and contains not only the tomato, bell pepper, aubergine and potato plants, but also dangerous plants such as deadly nightshade!
Solanaceae are known for having a diverse range of alkaloids — a range of compounds that includes both some considered beneficial, and some that are notorious poisons. Another interesting tidbit is that according to Zen macrobiotic cookery, tomato and potato are considered yin and avoided. There might be something in it.
This is a well known supplementation for people with joint troubles. Coming from Zingiberaceae family, ginger is closely related to other potent herbs like cardamom and galangal. The juice derived from roots of ginger is often utilized as spice in many Asian cuisines, especially in Indian delicacies. But more than just for its culinary benefits, ginger is widely considered valuable for treating and preventing all sorts of ailments and health conditions.
Researchers have found evidence to indicate that ginger has many medicinal properties which include antiviral, analgesic, antispasmodic, antifungal, anti-clotting, hypotensive, expectorant, antibacterial, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. Ginger isalso believed to be effective in stimula- ting the circulatory system, promoting perspiration, increasing blood flow, and in relaxing the peripheral blood vessels — which is definitely good for the heart.
In Asian cultures, ginger is used to prevent flu, suppress coughing, and treat common colds, inflammation and sore throat. This rhizome can also be used to treat morning sickness, diarrhea, and tummy pain. Also recognized for its anti-inflammatory properties, ginger contains valuable compounds like gingerols, shogaol, and zingerone that are known for their pain relieving effects.
This makes this spice one of the most popular home remedies for pain-related conditions like arthritis, rheumat- ism, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and knee osteoarthritis. Recent scientific researches have also claimed that ginger may even be effective in combating the development of cancer cells.
Researchers found out through lab tests that ginger is capable of halting the growth of several cancer cells that are believed to be difficult to treat like prostate, pancreatic, breast, colon, skin carcinoma, ovarian and lung cancer cells. Through the years, people have developed various ways on how to use and benefit from this powerful herb. Whether consumed raw or dry, it cannot be denied that ginger brings about lots of health benefits to the body. Cover with a saucer and let sit until cool enough to drink before straining.
I line a fine mesh strainer with a coffee filter to do so. Sweeten with honey or sugar as desired. Make a tea see 1 for directions , soak a piece of flannel or washcloth for about 5 minutes, wring out and immediately place on painful area. Cover with a towel, then a heating pad or hot water bottle, then another towel. Leave on for 20 minutes.
Repeat if needed. If you use regular jello, lemon or orange are fabulous flavors to blend with ginger!
Stir together well in a deep, heavy saucepan. Boil over medium to medium-high heat, without further stirring, until mixture reaches degrees F, periodically stirring, if needed. You can see more details about that method and this recipe at my Rose-Petal Peppermint Drops post. Elderberry is another favorite! This is a wonderful book that both my daughter and I have poured over many times. Make a tea, as directed in 1, only use twice as much ginger. Simmer the mixture for 5 minutes to reduce it a bit, then let sit for ten minutes before straining.
Drink right away to preserve the fizz factor. It helps warm up and stimulate the entire body by increasing circulation to the feet and legs. Persons with diabetic retinopathy may find this helpful, however, it would be wise to double check with your health care provider first. For your first ginger footbath, start with a smaller amount of ginger then work your way up. Soak feet for ten to twenty minutes at a time. Another use is placing 2 to 3 drops on a piece of cotton or cotton ball and placing in an aching ear for several hours.
I like to use it in salves and balms that I make intended for sore muscles. Pour olive oil or sweet almond oil over the spice. Shake well and allow to infuse for several weeks in a cool, dark place. After about four to six weeks, strain out the oil and store in a sterilized jar with a tight cap. This will keep about a year if stored properly. Combine together in a heat proof small jar such as a jelly jar. Set this into a pan with a few inches of water. Slowly heat the water not to boiling! Allow to set up then cap and store in a cool, dark cabinet. Apply as needed. My other, really cheap way that I often employ is to reuse tiny supplement capsules that we only take a sprinkle of at a time.
So, if someone is under the weather, I might mix a spoonful of honey with a tincture or a bit of herb like olive leaf and I will also add a sprinkle of germanium. I repry them open and use a tiny measuring spoon to refill with powdered ginger. Then, I have an easy-to-swallow sized pill perfect for kids and those with a sensitive gag reflex.
To make one, put a generous pinch or two of ground ginger in a small jar then cover with 80 proof or higher vodka or brandy. Chopped fresh ginger will work even better, but use what you have. Cap and shake well then store in a cool, dark place like a cupboard. Label clearly with the date and ingredients. These will keep for at least a year, but likely much longer. I usually dispense tinctures to my children about 3 or 4 drops at a time. I like to dose ginger tincture in a glass of ginger ale. But, you can also mix some with a spoonful of honey.
Brave souls can even take a dropperful directly in the mouth, followed by a swig of water. It was reminiscent of the morning-and-all-day queasiness I felt when pregnant. For a few years, Maalox was my lifesaver and I went through bottle after bottle of it. I know! Then, I became more health-conscious and switched to some tiny, expensive bottles of ginger syrup from the health food store.
Eventually, I figured out that food can be the root of many illnesses, dropped the gluten and queasiness became a thing of the past! I now also know that I could have saved a ton of money by making my own ginger syrup. While the tea is still warm, gently stir the honey into it. Store for around a month in the refrigerator. Add several tablespoons of vodka or brandy to extend shelf life by several more months. Dosing: 1 to 2 teaspoons for children over a year old, 1 tablespoon for adults up to five times per day, as needed.
Now I know that this is called a liniment and is easily duplicated at home. Depending on which herb you choose, your liniment will be warming or cooling. Cover completely with rubbing alcohol you can also use witch hazel extract or vinegar then cap. Let this sit in a cupboard for a couple of weeks, shaking whenever you remember. After this amount of time, strain out and discard the ginger.
Rebottle the liniment in a preferably dark bottle. If you have any concern at all about children getting into this, then use vinegar as your menstruum instead of rubbing alcohol. Rub this on strained muscles and areas of arthritic pain. Just put a spoonful of honey into a tea cup or small bowl, put in a tiny pinch of ginger, stir together then eat! And since your body is mostly surrounded by muscles, the chances of experiencing such pain at some point in your life are pretty much a certainty!
Painkilling drugs are usually used but more often than not, these only temporarily cure the symptoms and not the underlying cause, leading many to depend on them and over time, potentially acquiring unwanted side-effects as a result. Results showed that the 41 subjects who received valerian acupressure experienced increased sleeping hours and decreased wake frequency compared to the control group. Furthermore, kava is shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety. In investigating the effectiveness of possible treatments for anxiety disorder, researchers in Australia found that kava had the best evidence of effectiveness for generalized anxiety.
Because of this, research confirms that chamomile is also effective to alleviate muscle spasms and tension which tend  to worsen when one is stressed or anxious. Ginger In a recent study, 4 purified constituents of ginger were analyzed for their relaxant properties in both guinea pigs and human tracheas. Like licorice, ginger was found to cause significant and rapid relaxation in airway smooth muscles.
This poses benefits for sufferers of Muscle Relaxation who experience airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Lobelia Since time immemorial, lobelia has been widely used as a muscle relaxant.
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