Regulating Services in the European Union


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Norwegian Port of Oslo is looking to expand further while meeting ambitious targets for reducing GHG emissions. France-based classification society Bureau Veritas has gained accreditation to carry out assessments and The European Council formally adopted a new set of rules governing ports in the European Union on January 23, The Defence Safety Conference returns to London this October as the only event solely dedicated to enhancing safety across all aspects of defence. The Exchange will look at the issues involved with increasing autonomy in shipping with an introduction to the concept….

Moreover, they play a fundamental role in filtering out pollutants and are home to much wildlife. Restoring the function of floodplains in EU countries could save approximately 1. Of course, this type of ecosystem restoration has initial costs. However, this value is still estimated to be much lower than the costs associated to damage control and the improvement of dykes WWF Degradation of natural ecosystems has also been linked to the intensification of other natural hazards Dudley et al. For example, in the Swiss Alps the protection of old forests contribute to disaster prevention e.

Additionally, the role of European pristine scrublands and Belgian grasslands against soil erosion was valued at Economic benefits from non-extractive activities such as nature tourism and recreation boost local and regional economies, providing income and employment to communities and private landholders who face limited alternative livelihoods, especially in a context of rural depopulation of marginal areas Brown et al.

Furthermore, the aims of eco-tourism are closely associated with biodiversity conservation. Through the promotion of rewilding efforts, there will be an increase in the connectivity of landscapes, creating an opportunity for the expansion of large mammals and other species Russo , and indirectly increasing tourism while generating economic benefits to local communities.

Eco-tourism is defined by the International Ecotourism Society as the responsible visiting to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people. In particular, wildlife areas appeal to a large spectrum of tourists given the presence of charismatic species and other rare or attractive species. The reintroduction of ungulates and large carnivores in the Majella and the Retezat National Park in Italy and Romania, respectively, has also contributed to the local economy Kun and van der Donk In Scotland, tourism from wild landscapes is one of the most important economic sectors, contributing 1.

In addition to its potential economic benefits , beaver dams are considered to have a positive impact on river systems by increasing both invertebrate and fish populations Kemp et al. The Natura network further exemplifies how biodiversity can be protected while generating benefits. This figure contrasts with the annual investment in the Natura network, estimated at 5.

Regulating Services in the European Union

The degradation, or land conversion, of natural ecosystems alters not only species richness and composition; it reduces ecosystem functionality, impacting the flow of ecosystem services , the costs of recuperation and ultimately human well-being Flynn et al. Global and EU targets were designed for the conservation and restoration of natural ecosystems, including the biodiversity and ecosystem services that they sustain see Chap. For instance, Target 2 of the EU biodiversity strategy promotes the restoration and the use of green infrastructures i.

In this context, the restoration of nature through rewilding can be seen as a solution to address the on-going agricultural land abandonment while developing a new rural economy offering multiple social and environmental benefits Brown et al. We investigated the existence of the spatial co-occurrence of wilderness and ecosystem services supply at the EU scale Fig.

We thus argue that by restoring and sustaining wilderness areas we are underpinning a supply of high quality ecosystem services provided by those areas. These services will also heighten a new local economy, providing an economic break for the remaining rural communities through the creation of jobs and income generated from incentives, including from payments for ecosystem services, carbon markets, biodiversity markets, and eco-tourism e. Bishop et al. Although, the concept of rewilding is fairly recent in Europe, it has already been identified as a cost-effective management strategy for traditional land uses in Scotland Brown et al.

In the Netherlands, rewilding has been positively perceived by people: individuals attribute a low willingness to pay for the conservation of extensive farming versus rewilding initiatives van Berkel and Verburg Farmland abandonment can lead to the potential loss of traditional cultural values and heritage, including local knowledge on farming and resource management, and locally adapted animal breeds and crop varieties Cerqueira et al.

Thus, choices have to be made case by case, and strategies should be designed to mitigate and avoid cultural losses. Furthermore, extensive agriculture and the maintenance of traditional activities provide a different bundle of ecosystem services from rewilding. Therefore, there might be instances where local communities or the public will prefer the bundle of services associated with rewilding, while in other places the bundle of services associated with extensive agriculture will be chosen.

Instead we think it should be considered as a potential strategy in those areas where the social-ecological dynamics of the landscape are no longer socially, economically or environmentally sustainable. Yet, there are still many challenges in understanding the full relationship between landscape management, the supply of ecosystem services, and the economic benefits and costs associated to each management type. We believe we need further research on the environmental, social and economic benefits associated to wilderness and rewilded areas. Raising awareness of these benefits may help to promote the concept of rewilding, and help gain momentum to define public policies and funding for rewilding activities.

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and source are credited. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide.

Open Access. First Online: 05 May Download chapter PDF. Here we build on on-going work to map ecosystem services across Europe Maes et al. In order for each ecosystem service to contribute equally to the analysis, and following the method of Petter et al. The HANPP values were only extracted within agricultural land as to not repeat the information on the provision of timber. Open image in new window. Table 3.


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Wilderness Wilderness areas have been defined as large natural areas, unmodified or slightly modified, governed by natural processes, with no human intervention, infrastructure or permanent habitation present Wild Europe Wilderness and Ecosystem Services Some high wilderness areas are associated to regions supplying high ecosystem services , particularly in mountain regions Fig. As expected, the overlay of provisioning services and wilderness Fig. Northern Scandinavia. This is not surprising since wilderness areas are typically associated with low to no extraction of natural resources.

There are nonetheless high provisioning services in some areas of high wilderness quality, mainly associated to mountain regions e.

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This can be due to the occurrence of large quantities of resources for some provisioning services i. Regulating Benefits In Lowland England, studies on different land use management options have shown that the cost and benefits of changes in ecosystem services from rewilding outweigh those from arable and dairy farming NERC Cultural Benefits Economic benefits from non-extractive activities such as nature tourism and recreation boost local and regional economies, providing income and employment to communities and private landholders who face limited alternative livelihoods, especially in a context of rural depopulation of marginal areas Brown et al.

Bishop, J. Google Scholar. Brown, C.


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    Costanza, R. What is a healthy ecosystem? Aquatic Ecology, 33 1 , — Cruz, A. De Groot, R. Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units. Ecosystem Services, 1 1 , 50— Donlan, C. Pleistocene rewilding: An optimistic agenda for twenty-first century conservation. American Naturalist, 5 , — Dudley, N. Natural Solutions: Protected areas helping people cope with climate change. Dunbar, M. European perspective of ecosystem services and related policies. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 9 2 , — Corine Land Cover raster data.

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    Our life insurance, our natural capital: An EU biodiversity strategy to No. COM final. Brussels: European Comission. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to Luxembourg, 27pp. Ewert, A. Feyen, L.

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